Правильное употребление относительных местоимений

Who, whom and whose

Местоимения who, whom и whose относятся только к одушевленным предметам. Изредка они употребляются с животными и неодушевленными предметами.
A boy who does not play games will never be healthy.
This is the woman whose husband was killed by the dacoits.
I have an Alsatian whose name is Bruce.
This is John Paul whom I used to know as a child.
The ancients worshipped the moon whom they called Diana.

Which

Which употребляется с животными и с неодушевленными предметами.
Mangoes which are over-ripe should be thrown away.
The horse which won the race is called Handsome.
This is a case which calls for careful investigation.

Which также употребляется, чтобы сослаться на предыдущее утверждение.
The man said he was a police officer, which was not true.
He wants me to give up his claim, which is impossible.
He happened to be there at the time, which was fortunate.

That

That употребляется как с одушевленными, так и неодушевленными предметами.
This is the boy that won the first prize.
Here is the man that I told you of.
This is the monument that was built by Shah Jehan.
Uneasy lies the head that wears a crown.

Одно из отличий that от who, which состоит в том, что в то время как who и which могут употребляться в притяжательном падеже (whose, of which) и с предлогами (of whom, to whom, by which) that таким образом употребляться не может.
This is my boy of whom I am proud.
This is the man whose house was burgled.
I have an axe with which I cut wood.

Нельзя заменить that словами of whom, whose или with which в данных предложениях.

What

What употребляется с неодушевленными предметами.
I mean what (= that which) I say.
What (= that which) is one man’s meat is another man’s poison.
Take down what (= that which) I dictate.
I saw what looked like a flying saucer.
What cannot be cured must be endured.

As

As употребляется в качестве относительного местоимения после such, и иногда после the same.
He is such a man as I honour.
His reaction was such as might have been expected.
My position is the same as yours.

But

После отрицания, слово but употребляется в качестве относительного местоимения в значении who…not или which…not.
There was not a man among them but hoped (= who did not hope) to get out alive.
There is no rose but has (= which does not have) some thorn.
There is none here but will (= who will not) support you.

Рубрика: Грамматика

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