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The USA (7)

Топик США (7) рассказывает о государстве, расположенном в Северной Америке. США имеют федеративную форму устройства и административно делятся на 50 штатов и федеральный округ Колумбия. Столица – город Вашингтон. Соединенные Штаты граничат на севере с Канадой, на юге – с Мексикой. Омываются Тихим океаном с запада, Атлантическим океаном - с востока и Северным Ледовитым океаном - с севера. На основной территории страны к западу от Приатлантической низменности протянулись Аппалачские горы, за которыми располагаются Центральные равнины и плато Великие равнины. Так как страна расположена на большой территории, в ней представлены практически все климатические зоны – от арктического климата на севере Аляски до тропического в штате Гавайи и на юге Флориды. США является высокоразвитой индустриальной страной. Большие запасы нефти, угля, железа и других минералов являются прочной основой развития американской промышленности. Согласно Конституции, федеральное правительство разделено на три ветви. Конгресс является носителем законодательной власти и состоит из двух палат: Сената и Палаты представителей. Исполнительную ветвь власти возглавляет Президент, который предлагает законопроекты в Конгресс, является главнокомандующим Вооруженных Сил. Судебная ветвь состоит из федеральных окружных судов, 11 федеральных судов и Верховного Суда. Конституция является самым важным документом в США.

The United States of America was formed by emigrants in 1382.

The USA consist of 50 states. Washington, the capital of the United States, is situated on the Potomac River in the District of Columbia. The district is a piece of land which doesn't belong to any state but to all the states.

The USA occupy a large territory and are situated in the central and southern part of North America. The USA is washed by the Atlantic ocean in the east and by the Pacific ocean in the west. In the north, the USA has borders on Canada and in the south on Mexico.

The USA is divided into three areas: Eastern area is a highland, central area is a plain and Western area is mountains including the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada. There are five great lakes in the northern part of the USA. There are: Huron, Michigan, Superior, Ontario and Erie. They are connected by fast rivers. There is the most famous to the whole world fall called Niagara Falls. Mississippi together with its tributary Missouri is the longest river in the world. Mountain ranges cross the country from north to south and don't protect it against cold air from the north and warm one from the south. The USA has a continental climate.

The USA is a highly developed industrial country. Large reserves of oil, coal, iron and other minerals are solid base of development of Americans industry. Heavy industry prevails in USA, including such branches as the mining, metallurgical, engineering, chemical and high-tech industries. USA has also well-developed light industry which includes textile, tanning and footwear industries. The food industry is well developed too. Both animal husbandry and farming takes big place in the economy of the USA.

Under the Constitution, the federal government is divided into three branches. The Congress is vested with the legislative power and made up of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. There are 435 members in the House of Representatives and 100 senators. Each state elects two members of the Senate.

The executive branch is headed by the President, who proposes bills to Congress, serves as commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces. The President is chosen in nation-wide elections every 4 years. The second person in executive branch is vice President. The vice President, elected from the same political party as the President The judicial branch consists of Federal District Courts, 11 Federal Courts and the Supreme Court. Federal judges are appointed by the President. Federal courts decide cases involving federal law, conflicts between citizens of different states.

Constitution is the most important document in the USA. Constitution has been amended 26 times. The Bill of Rights guarantees individual liberties: freedom of speech, religion and so on.

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