Топик Электронная почта рассказывает о предпосылках появления электронных писем и о видах дистанционной переписки, существовавших до электронной почты. Начиная с древней истории, человечество стремилось к общению: сначала появились барабаны, затем дымовые сигналы, затем посыльные, телеграф, азбука Морзе, телексы. Телексы стали широко использоваться с середины 1920-х до середины 1980-х годов. Сеть телексов была безопасной и не зависела от телефонной сети. Появление электронной почты можно отнести к 1965 году, когда сотрудники Массачусетского технологического института написали программу mail для операционной системы CTSS, установленную на компьютере IBM 7090/7094. Общее развитие электронной почты шло через развитие локального взаимодействия пользователей на многопользовательских системах. Пользователи могли, используя программу mail (или ее эквивалент), пересылать друг другу сообщения в пределах одного мейнфрейма (большого компьютера). Следующий шаг был в возможности переслать сообщение пользователю на другой машине — для этого использовалось указание имени машины и имени пользователя на машине. Третий шаг для становления электронной почты произошел в момент появления передачи писем через третий компьютер. После появления распределенной глобальной системы имен DNS, для указания адреса стали использоваться доменные имена. Одновременно с этим, для почты стали использоваться выделенные серверы, на которые не имели доступ обычные пользователи, а только администраторы. За обслуживание домена могут отвечать многие серверы, возможно, физически размещенные на разных континентах и в разных организациях. Электронная почта сейчас стала наиболее доступным средством общения во всем мире. О том, каким станет Интернет и формы связи в будущем, остается только догадываться.
Mankind has always had a compelling desire to communicate. In ancient times this could be verbally or in some form of writing. If remote communication was required (i.e. if the parties were not physically together) messages had to be physically carried or sent by a messenger. Examples of early forms of remote transmission of messages not requiring a person to actually move between the sender and the receiver would be in 'jungle drum' or 'smoke signal' transmissions. These were somewhat lacking in security and privacy.
If 'email' is loosely defined as 'messages transmitted electronically', then the first 'email messages' would have started in the last century with telegraph messages (by wire) and Morse Code transmissions (via airways). This definition would also include the telex network that was used extensively by business on a world-wide basis from the mid-1920's to the mid-1980's. The telex network was independent of the telephone network and telex machines could connect with and communicate with any other telex machine on a global scale. Telex also was relatively secure in that the sending and receiving machines did identifying handshaking. It was relatively expensive to have a 'telex line' installed and subsequent telex messages were charged on a data transmitted basis. In addition, for much of its history, use of telex required a dedicated 'telex terminal' which was less than intuitive and often required trained operators. It may come as a surprise to many in this age of computers and chips everywhere that telex is still operating and being used throughout the world.
During the 1960's and 1970's many companies who were using mainframe and mini computers also used email facilities on those systems. This enabled users of terminals attached to those systems to send messages to each other. As companies began to connect their central systems (hosts) to branch offices and subsidiaries then employees were able to send email to other employees of that company on a world-wide basis. Also during this time the US Department of Defense's research into computer networks was well underway, resulting in the embryonic ARPANET - the forerunner to the now global Internet. According to information regarding these early years, the first ARPANET network email message was transmitted in 1971. In the late-1970's and 1980's the phenomenal growth of personal computers (Apple II 1978 - 1985; IBM PC 1983 and Apple Macintosh 1984) created a whole new genre of email technologies. Some of these systems were proprietary 'dial-up' systems such as MCI Mail, EasyLink, Telecom Gold, One-to-One, CompuServe, AppleLink etc. For two people to exchange messages remotely on these systems they had to both be subscribers. The proprietary systems did not interoperate or transmit messages from one system to another, or for the few systems that did these were notoriously unreliable РC a reason for eventual demise of most of these systems. At the same time, companies and enthusiasts were setting up 'bulletin board systems' (BBS) which were often used both to send/receive messages and to exchange information. A couple of facts are worthy of note at this juncture: a) there were over one million Apple II computers sold before the first 'PC' was even released; b) there were hundreds-of-thousands of personal computer users sending and receiving 'email messages' using dial-up systems prior to the Internet becoming available for general use. In parallel with the development of the personal computer market, companies were connecting the personal computers increasingly being used by their staff, to both their mainframe/midrange systems and to "LAN-based" email systems. When connected to the mainframe/midrange systems they were often being used in 'terminal emulation' mode and therefore the email being used was the same as for the dedicated terminals. The LAN-based systems often had much easier-to-use interfaces and offered more functionality, such as the ability to send attachments with email messages. As the company networks slowly evolved from terminal-based host-access applications through to PC work groups, the Internet was becoming more widely used for access to information. Firstly for military use, then academic and commercial communications.
The history of the Internet and its creation is a complex issue. As the Internet became available to more people, both privately and through company connections, the email facilities available to users have evolved from the proprietary email systems available within company networks and via host-based systems through to the current trend of "Intranets" which are effectively private mini-Internets, using the standards-based Internet services, such as mail & web servers in place of proprietary ones. Since 1995 both the Internet and email have been 'hot' topics. But when one cuts away the hype, one realises that email itself is not new. What is relatively new however is that email is now: more readily available interoperable between systems available world-wide free much better known reached a critical mass where one can expect others to have an email address(generally) complies with standards much easier to use fashionable.
No doubt the Internet will shape future communications, far beyond the current uses. As to what features and functions that will become available over the next few years, the speed of progress dictates that we can only guess.