Some and any Some/any + -one/-body/-thing/-where

(a) Обычно some применяют в утвердительном предложении, а any – в отрицательном и в вопросах (но обратите внимание на пункты b и d):

- Sue has caught some flies. – We haven't got any money.
- I've got something tasty to eat. – He's busy. He never has any time.
- Let's go somewhere quiet. – She never goes anywhere.
- She refused to do anything.

(b) Any / anyone / anything и т.д. часто используются после if :

- If there are any calls for me, can you say that I'm not home?
- If anyone has any questions, ask now.
- If you want anything, say it to the servant, he'll do everything.

в предложениях без if, но смысл в них тот же:
- Anyone who wants to get this job must give me their names before Tuesday. (= if there is anyone who ...)
- I'll welcome any guests that will come to you. (= if there are any)

(с) В вопросительных предложениях обычно употребляется местоимение any (а не `some'):
- Have you got any coffee? – Has anybody called me?

Но some часто используется в вопросах, когда ожидаемым ответом является `yes' :
- What's wrong with him? Has he got some troubles? (= I think he has got some troubles and I expect you to say `yes')
- She's in a hurry. Is she going out somewhere? (= She's looking miserable. Isn't she going out anywhere?)

и в вопросах, особенно когда мы предлагаем или просим о чём-либо:
- Would you like some work? – Can I have some of those vegetables?

(d) Any /anyone /anybody /anything /anywhere могут означать it doesn't matter which /who /what /where:

- You can buy any of these suits. (=неважно который из этих костюмов)
- Call me any time you need. (=неважно когда)
- You can have anything you want for your birthday present.
- She left the child in the street. Anybody could have walked off with it.
- I'd rather go anywhere than stay at home.
- `Tell me a story.' `What story shall I tell?' `Any one. I don't mind.'

(e) Someone /somebody /anyone /anybody используются, как слова в единственном числе:
- Someone wants to talk with you.
- Is anybody home?

Но часто they / them / their используются после этих слов вместо he / she :
- If anyone needs to leave , they can. (= he or she can)
- Somebody has spilt their (= his or her) coffee on the carpet.

Рубрика: Грамматика

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